Thymus musilii Velen. is a rare plant species cultivated in the Ha'il region (Saudi Arabia) under greenhouse conditions. In this work, we described, for the first time, the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-quorum sensing, and anticancer activities of T. musilii methanolic extract using both experimental and computational approaches. The obtained results showed the identification of eight small-like peptides and eighteen phyto-compounds by using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HR-LCMS) dominated mainly by compounds belonging to isoprenoid, fatty acyl, flavonoid, and alkaloid classes. The tested extracts exhibited high antifungal and antibacterial activity with the mean diameter of growth inhibition zones ranging from 12.33 ± 0.57 mm (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) to 29.33 ± 1.15 mm (Candida albicans ATCC 10231). Low minimal inhibitory concentrations were recorded for the tested micro-organisms ranging from 0.781 mg/mL to 12.5 mg/mL. While higher doses were necessary to completely kill all tested bacterial and fungal strains. Thyme extract was able to scavenge DPPH•, ABTS•+, β-carotene, and FRAP free radicals, and the IC50 values were 0.077 ± 0.0015 mg/mL, 0.040 ± 0.011 mg/mL, 0.287 ± 0.012 mg/mL, and 0.106 ± 0.007 mg/mL, respectively. The highest percentage of swarming and swimming inhibition was recorded at 100 µg/mL with 39.73 ± 1.5% and 25.18 ± 1%, respectively. The highest percentage of biofilm inhibition was recorded at 10 mg/mL for S. typhimurium ATCC 14028 (53.96 ± 4.21%) and L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 (49.54 ± 4.5 mg/mL). The in silico docking study revealed that the observed antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of the constituent compounds of T. musilii are thermodynamically feasible, notably, such as those of the tripeptides (Asn-Met-His, His-Cys-Asn, and Phe-His-Gln), isoprenoids (10-Hydroxyloganin), and diterpene glycosides (4-Ketoretinoic acid glucuronide).