The therapeutic activities of curcumin have long been investigated in some chronic and inflammatory diseases. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of nanocurcumin on intestinal barrier function, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in rats exposed to traffic noise. Forty rats were divided into four groups: two traffic noise-exposed groups of animals that received either vehicle (NOISE) or nanocurcumin (NCUR + NOISE) and two control groups that either remained intact (CON) or received nanocurcumin (NCUR). Nanocurcumin injection (15 mg/Kg/ip) and traffic noise exposure were administered daily for two weeks. The relative protein expression of intestinal tight junctions, occludin, and ZO-1 and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was measured to evaluate barrier integrity and apoptosis in intestinal samples, respectively. Plasma D-lactate concentration was examined as a criterion of intestinal permeability. Corticosterone, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and nitrite were measured in serum. The noise exposure increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, corticosterone, and oxidative stress in the NOISE animals. Nanocurcumin treatment improved the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and reduced corticosterone and oxidative stress in the NCUR + NOISE animals. The expression of tight junction proteins was decreased while the concentration of D-lactate was increased in the NOISE animals. Nanocurcumin did not efficiently impact the expression of tight junction proteins and the D-lactate level in the NCUR + NOISE group. Nanocurcumin administration displayed antioxidant and anti-apoptotic roles in the noise-exposed rats, however, it did not affect the intestinal barrier integrity. We concluded that reduced apoptosis in the intestine might be related to the antioxidant activity of nanocurcumin and its modulatory effects on the HPA axis in the nanocurcumin-treated animals.